COVID-19 Monoclonal Antibody Therapy

Monoclonal antibodies, designed to mimic the body’s natural immune response, are available as treatment for COVID-19 for patients at high risk of progression to severe disease.

Studies have shown, if administered early (Less than 10 days from onset of symptoms) progression to severe symptoms and hospitalizations are reduced. 

Important Message Regarding Scheduling:

A referral is needed to obtain treatment at one of the infusion centers in Texas. EnRoute Health will evaluate you and provide the referral if you meet criteria. 


Available Sites at this time: Austin, San Antonio, Corpus Christi, Laredo


Average time to be scheduled depends on location and number of patients being scheduled. Average time at this time is 48 hrs.

EnRoute Health DOES NOT schedule infusion appointments. We provide the referral for you to receive Monoclonal Antibody Therapy ONLY if you meet criteria after being evaluated by an EnRoute Health Practitioner. Your referral will be submitted to Infusionreferral@bcfs@net. To check on the status of your referral please call 800-742-5990

You will not be scheduled for therapy if your symptoms have exceeded 10 days.

If you are on day 9 or 10 it is unlikely you will be scheduled. We will still submit your referral but we can not promise you that you will receive an appointment. 

If you have tested positive for COVID-19, have risk factors, do not delay treatment. Schedule your visit today!

We recommend you discuss receiving Monoclonal Therapy with your primary medical provider. They are also able to provide you a referral. 

If you are pregnant, You must obtain a referral from your OBGYN. EnRoute Health will not provide a referral to anyone who is currently pregnant. 

All telemedicine visits are nonrefundable. Submission of a request does not guarantee you will meet criteria or be scheduled for an infusion appointment. 

What Is a Monoclonal Antibody?

An antibody is a protein that is naturally produced by the immune system in response to an infection. A monoclonal antibody is a molecule developed in a laboratory that is designed to mimic or enhance the body’s natural immune system response against an invader, such as cancer or an infection. Monoclonal antibodies have an advantage over other types of treatment for infection because they are created to specifically target an essential part of the infectious process. A monoclonal antibody is created by exposing a white blood cell to a particular viral protein, which is then cloned to mass produce antibodies to target that virus. Prior to COVID-19, monoclonal antibodies were developed to treat several viral infections, such as Ebola and rabies.

Monoclonal Antibody Treatment for COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a spike protein on its surface that helps the virus attach and enter human cells. Several monoclonal antibodies have been developed to bind to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and block the virus from invading human cells. Patients with COVID-19 may receive an intravenous (IV) infusion of a monoclonal antibody, usually in an emergency department, an infusion center, or another outpatient setting (such as the patient’s home or a nursing home).

Monoclonal Antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 Variants

New variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have recently been detected. These variants emerge because of mutations in the genome of the virus. Monoclonal antibodies remain effective against the new SARS-CoV-2 variant called B.1.1.7 (first reported in the United Kingdom). However, some mutations may cause changes in the spike protein that could interfere with the effectiveness of currently available monoclonal antibodies.

Potential Risks of Monoclonal Antibodies

Some patients could experience either an allergic or nonallergic infusion-related reaction. Both reactions are due to activation of the immune system in response to the antibody but occur in different ways. Infusion-related reactions seem to be rare but can cause flushing, itching, shortness of breath, or low blood pressure. There are also potential side effects of receiving any IV medication, including pain, soreness, or bruising around the IV site.

Who Should Have Monoclonal Antibody Treatment?

Currently, 2 monoclonal antibody products are being used to treat COVID-19 through a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization. Although researchers are still learning which patients with COVID-19 are most likely to benefit from monoclonal antibody therapy, early data suggest greater benefit in high-risk patients, including those older than 65 years, with a suppressed immune system, or with certain medical conditions including obesity. Monoclonal antibodies are intended for patients recently diagnosed as having COVID-19 who are not sick enough to be in the hospital but who have some risk factors for severe infection. Giving the infusion as early as possible in the course of infection is important, so patients should seek medical care and testing as soon as they develop symptoms.

JAMA Patient Page

February 5, 2021

Monoclonal Antibodies for COVID-19

Elizabeth C. Lloyd, MD1Tejal N. Gandhi, MD1Lindsay A. Petty, MD1

Author Affiliations Article Information

JAMA. 2021;325(10):1015. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1225